Teleological Concept of Nature

4.1       Literature Recommendations

Key Literature

Recommendations for Further Reading


4.2       References


Aristoteles (1987) Physik, translated by H.G. Zekl, Felix Meiner Verlag, Hamburg.

Becker, Ch., Christian Becker, D. Ewringmann, M. Faber, T. Petersen

and A. Zahrnt (2015) Endangering the Natural Basis of Life Is Unjust: On the Status

and Future of the Sustainability Discourse, Ethics, Policy & Environment, 18:1, 60-67, DOI:


Faber, M., Manstetten, R. (2010) Philosophical Basics of Ecology and Economy, Routledge, London: Chapter 8. This book is the main source for this element; it is foundational for the triple teleology. It is also essential for the element [Basics of Life: Stocks, Stores & Funds.

Hegel, G.W.F. (1821) Grundlinien der Philosophie der Rechts oder Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaften im Grundrisse. Suhrkamp-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main.

Heidegger, M. (1996) The Principle of Reason, translated by Reginald Lilly, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis.

Kant, I. (1787/1929) Critique of Pure Reason, translated by Norman Kemp Smith, Macmillan and Co. Ltd., London.

Kant, I. (1793/1892) Critique of Judgement, translated with introduction and notes by J.H. Bernard, Macmillan and Co., London.

Platon (1990) Timaios, in: K. Widdra (ed.), Platon, Werke, Bd. 7, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.

Spaemann, R. and R. Low (1991) die Frage: wozu? Geschichte und Weiterentwicklung des teleologischen Denkens. Piper, München.


Romantic Perspectives on Nature

Becker, C., Faber, M., Hertel, K., Manstetten, R. (2005) „Malthus vs. Wordsworth: Perspectives of Humankind, Nature and Economy. A Contribution to the History and the Foundations of Ecological Economics”, Ecological Economics 53: 299-310.

Becker, C., Manstetten, R. (2004) „Nature as a You. Novalis’ Philosophical Thought and the Modern Ecological Crisis“, Environmental Values 13: 101-118.

Malthus, T.R. [1798](1976): An Essay on the Principle of Population. Ed. by   Philip Appleman. New York, London.

Wordsworth, W., T. Coleridge [1798/1802](1965): Lyrical Ballads. The text of

the   1798   edition   with   the   additional   1800   poems   and   the   Prefaces.   Ed.

with introd., notes and append. by R.L. Brett and A.R. Jones. London.


Biology and Ecology


Baumgärtner, S., Faber, M., Schiller, J. (2006) Joint Production and Responsibility in Ecological Economics. On the Foundations of Environmental Policy. Cheltenham, UK, Brookfield, USA.

Begon, M.E., Harper, J.L. and Townsend, C.R, (1990) Ecology: Individuals, Populations, and Communities. 2nd Ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Boston, Oxford. This is an encompassing and foundational book on ecology

Begon, M.E., Harper, J.L., Townsend, C.R, (1998) Ökologie, translated by Held, A. et al., Spektrum Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. This German translation of Begon, Harper, and  Townsend (1990).

Clark, C.W. (1976) Mathematical Bioenconomics, Wiley, New York.

Dawkins, R. (1989) The Selfish Gene, second Edition (first Edition 1976), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Faber, M., Frank, K., Klauer, B.,Manstetten, R., Schiller, J., Wissel, C. (2005) On the foundation of a general theory of stocks. Ecological Economics 55: 155-172. This paper develops a joint terminology to examine ecological economic interactions from the perspective of economics and of ecology.

Faber, M., Manstetten, R. (1998) „Produktion, Konsum und Dienste in der Natur – Eine Theorie der Fonds“, in: L. Pohlmann, H.-J. Krug and U. Niedersen (eds.), Selbstorganisation, Jahrbuch für Komplexität in den Natur-, Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften: Evolution und Selbstorganisation in der Ökonomie, Vol. 9, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin: 209-236. This paper is foundational for the triple teleology.

Faber, M., Manstetten, R., Proops, J.L.R. (1995) “On the Conceptual Foundations of Ecological Economics: A Teleological Approach”, Ecological Economics 12: 41-54. This paper is foundational for the triple teleology.

Faber, M., Manstetten, R. Proops, J.L.R. (2002) Ecological Economics. Concepts and Methods, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Faber, M., Manstetten, R. in cooperation with Petersen, T., Becker, C., Hottinger, O., Hertel K.. Jöst, F. (2007) Was ist Wirtschaft? Von der Politischen Ökonomie zur Ökologischen Ökonomie, Alber, Freiburg.

Faber, M., Niemes, H., Stephan, G. (1995) Entropy, Environment and Resources. An Essay in Physico-Economics. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg. (English translation of the German Edition Entropie, Umweltschutz und Rohstoffverbrauch. Ein physikalisch-ökonomischer Essay, 1983, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin. Chinese translation of the English edition 1990, Beijing).

Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971) The Entropy Law and the Economic Process.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. This is perhaps the main text on the foundations of Ecologica Economics.

Haeckel, E. (1866) Allgemeine Entwicklungsgeschichte der Organismen: Kritische Grundzüge der mechanischen Wissenschaft von den entstehenden Formen der Organismen, begründet durch die Descendenz-Theorie, Verlag Georg Reimer, Berlin.

Storch, V., Welsch, U., Wink, M. (2001) Evolutionsbiologie, Springer, Berlin etc.

Norgaard, R.B., Howarth, B.B. (1991) “Sustainability and discounting the future”, in R.  Constanca, Ecological Economics: The Science of and Management of Sustainability, Columbia University Press, New York.

Strasburger, E. (ed.) (1991) Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen, 33. Edition., G. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena, New York.


Further Reading

Allen, P.M.  and Starr, T.B. ( 1982) Hirarchy. Perspectives  for Ecological Complexity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Klauer, B., Manstetten, R., Petersen, T., Schiller, J. with Contributions by B. Fischer, F. Jöst, M. Lee, K. Ott (2013) Die Kunst langfristig zu denken. Wege zur Nachhaltigkeit. Nomos, Baden-Baden. This book is also essential for the element Basics of Life – Stocks, Stores and Funds. – The English translation is quoted below. – This book is also essential for the element Basics of Life – Stocks, Stores and Funds. –  The English edition is quoted below.

Klauer, B., Manstetten, R. Petersen, T., Schiller, J. with Contributions by B. Fischer, F. Jöst, M. Lee, K. Ott (forthcoming) Sustainability and the Art of Long-Term Thinking. Translated by Kathleen Cross, Routledge, Abidong , Oxon, UK. This book is  also essential for the element Basics of Life – Stocks, Stores and Funds. –  The German edition is quoted above.

Simon, H. A. (1962) “The architecture of complexity”. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 106: 467-480.

Ullanowicz , R.E. ( 1992) Ecosystem health and trophic flows networks. In: R. Costanza, B. G. Norton and B. Haskel (eds.) Ecosystem Health: New goals for Environmental Management. Island Press, Washington, D.C.